在北美,有一套特殊的教育体系“gifted program”,华人常把它称之为“天才班。”能否进入天才班,不靠考试成绩,不靠学校能力评估,单靠一张心理医生的测试报告!所以,爱迪桥特意请来专门做天才测评的心理医生——Dr. Clare Kordyback, 来探讨:


1

“智商”(IQ)在生活中表现的多样性


2

父母应如何看待孩子的智商(IQ)


3

智商能被提高吗?如何提高?


4

在孩子现有智商基础上,怎样提高孩子的学习能力?


值得一提的是,Clare老师本身就是一个天才少年,我们先一起来看看Clare老师的个人履历吧!


Clare Kordyback

Growing up in Toronto, Canada, I began attending a private Montessori preschool at the age of 2. For kindergarten, I attended the York School, the first fully International Baccalaureate (IB) accredited school in Toronto. I attended The York School from kindergarten to middle school, where I transitioned to Branksome Hall, another IB accredited private school. For my university, I first attended Trinity College Dublin, one of the three ancient colleges (Trinity, Oxford, and Cambridge), where I earned my bachelors degree in honors psychology, and a masters degree.


More recently, I am attending university in the USA, at University of North Carolina in psychology, where I have completed all my Doctoral work. This program ranks top two in the nation. My specialization is in childhood academic success which subsumes intelligence testing, achievement testing, and academic coaching to support a growth mindset. 


我在加拿大多伦多长大,2岁时开始上蒙台梭利私立幼儿园。上幼儿园时,我就读于约克学校,这是多伦多第一所完全国际学士(IB)认证的学校。我从幼儿园到中学都就读于约克学校,之后我转学到布兰克索姆霍尔,另一所IB认证的私立学校。到了大学,我先是就读于都柏林三一学院(Trinity College Dublin),这是全球三所最古老的学院之一(三一、牛津和剑桥),在那里我获得了荣誉心理学学士学位和硕士学位。


之后,我在北卡罗莱纳大学的心理学系就读,在那里我完成了所有的博士工作,这个项目在美国排名前二。我的专业是儿童学业成功,包括智力测试、成就测试和学业辅导,以保证孩子们能有一个良好的成长心态。


要Clare老师的讲座已经在加拿大时间11月24日晚8:30(北京时间11月25日早8:30)在多个国际群内同步直播,小编特意整理了讲座的音频和文字,以飨读者。

讲座正文:

Hello everyone, my name is Clare and I have a passion for IQ.


IQ, is an intelligence quotient, so a number that represents an individual’s intelligence. My passion has brought me to take on an undergraduate and master’s degree at Trinity College Dublin in Ireland, one of the three world renowned ancient colleges of Oxford, Cambridge, and Trinity. Then, to pursue my doctorate in psychology at University of North Carolina Chapel Hill a tier one research university, and a top three doctoral program in the nation, ranking higher than Yale, Duke, Harvard, UPen, Vanderbilt and more.


大家好,我叫克莱尔,我对智商感兴趣。


智商,是一个代表个人智力的数字。我在爱尔兰都柏林三一学院(Trinity College Dublin)攻读本科和硕士学位,该学院是全球三所最古老的学院之一(三一、牛津和剑桥)。其后,我在北卡罗莱纳大学教堂山分校攻读心理学博士学位,这是一所一级研究型大学,博士学位在美国排名前三,排名高于耶鲁大学、杜克大学、哈佛大学、厄本大学、范德比尔特大学等。


智商的定义及其多样性


Intelligence is defined and viewed from a multitude of perspectives. It can be perceived as the capacity for logic, understanding, learning, reasoning, critical thinking, problem solving, or even emotional knowledge. Young learners can be gifted in the fine arts while underperforming in mathematics, highlighting the heterogeneity of intelligence. At the core of the definition, there is no one prescribed view of intelligence. To me, it is the ability to absorb information, retain it, and apply that knowledge in order to adapt to the required expectations.


智力需要从多个角度定义和看待。它可以被看作是逻辑、理解、学习、推理、批判性思维、解决问题甚至情感知识的能力。一些孩子可能在美术方面很有天赋,而在数学方面表现不佳,这就说明了智力的异质性问题。目前为止,还没有对于智力的核心定义。对我来说,智力就是一种吸收信息、保留信息、运用知识以适应所需期望的能力。


This definition can be viewed in the fine arts: as a dancer learns new technique, implements the technique, and competes at a new level. In mathematics, a young student can learn a skill, recall the necessary steps for implementation, and then adapt those steps to meet the needs of more complex questions. I feel the most important aspect of intelligence, is the ability to take the information given, adapt it, and create new, innovative, creative, and efficient approaches to the problem. This is what is necessary to succeed.


如果要从艺术方面去给智商下个定义的话,比如说,作为一个舞者,不断学习新技术,实施新技术,并在一个新的层级上竞争,这就是智力的体现。再比如说,在数学方面,年轻学生可以学习一项技能,构想出实施的必要步骤,然后调整这些步骤以满足更复杂问题的需要,这也是智力的体现。我觉得智力最重要的方面,是获取所给信息的能力,适应它,并创造出新的、创造性的、有效的解决问题的方法——这是成功的必要条件。



父母应如何看待孩子的智商

Pop culture and the media enjoys latching onto research to grab the attention of readers who they presume will not do their due diligence. For example, children who play the piano or a stringed instrument score 15% higher on verbal skills than children who do not play an instrument.  Parents may then infer that smart children are talented at music, or they may infer that musicality makes a child intelligent. Neither of these are necessarily correct; it is far bigger than simply playing and instrument or not.


流行文化和媒体喜欢把注意力集中在研究的数据上,来抓读者的眼球。例如,一些文章会说,弹钢琴或管弦乐器的儿童比不弹乐器的儿童在语言技能上的得分高15%。父母可能因此而推断聪明的孩子在音乐方面很有天赋,也可能会推断音乐使孩子聪明。而事实上,这两种说法都不一定正确,它远比单纯的演奏和乐器复杂得多。


From a more global view of the child; a child whose parents are dedicated enough to take them to classes, ensure they practice, and have the financial means to support their passions plant the seeds of success early on. A child learns how to focus, concentrate, and persevere in the face of adversity when they are taught at an early age to practice in order to improve. This also plants a seed of an internal locus of control; that they, the student must work hard to achieve. Alternatively, an external locus of control views success or failure as being outside the control of the student. Students can and should accept that they may struggle in certain aspects of academia or life, that they are trying their best, and they need to do better.


从一个更全球化的角度来看,如果孩子的父母有足够的精力带他们去上课外班,确保他们持续练习,并有足够的财力来支持他们的热情,这样的孩子很早就播下了成功的种子。而一个孩子在很小的时候就学会了如何集中精力,并在逆境中坚持下来提高自己,这也播下了一颗内在控制源的种子。同时,孩子们也要学习并接受,无论对学习或是生活,也许他们已经非常努力,但最后的成功或失败还是在他本人的控制之外。




Alternatively, some children whose families can afford classes but, are not guided into strong study habits, may not flourish. Other children, who are naturally gifted, may not ever be given the opportunity to succeed due to financial resource constraints, rather than lack of effort by the parents. Intelligence goes far beyond eating fish oils, listening to classical music, and drilling students on vocabulary. To me, intelligence is like seedling, with genetics, parental guidance, life chances, and life choices deciding to what extent it flourishes. There is no quick answer, no quick fix, and therefore, it is vital to use your child’s gifts and strengths to mitigate any weaknesses. I chose to focus my entire career on intelligence, specifically the intelligence of children to help each child reach their cognitive potential.


另一方面,一些家庭负担得起课程,但却没有养成良好的学习习惯——这样的孩子可能不会茁壮成长。其他天赋异禀的孩子,不是父母缺乏努力,只是由于经济资源的限制,可能永远无法获得成功的机会。智力的提高远不止吃鱼油、听古典音乐、增大词汇量这么简单。对我来说,智力就像一棵幼苗,基因、父母的指导、生活的机会和生活的选择决定了它的繁荣程度。没有快速的答案,没有快速的解决方法,因此,利用孩子的天赋和优势来补足短板是至关重要的。我选择把整个职业生涯的重点放在智力上,特别是孩子们的智力,以帮助每个孩子发挥他们的认知潜能。


智商能被提高吗?如何提高?

Modern intelligence tests investigate the child as a whole and break down different aspects of their cognitive profile for example: fluid reasoning, their visual spatial abilities, their working memory, and more. By analyzing each aspect of a child’s cognitive profile, parents can highlight to potential educators their child’s natural gifts, while also giving the student techniques to better learn and approach tasks.


现代智力测验将儿童作为一个整体进行调查,并对其认知特征的不同方面进行分解,例如:流畅的推理、视觉空间能力、工作记忆等。通过分析孩子认知特征的各个方面,父母可以向潜在的教育者强调他们孩子的天赋,同时也给予学生更好地学习和处理任务的技巧。


在孩子现有智商基础上,怎样提高孩子的学习能力?


Knowledge is power. Again, intelligence, is the ability to absorb information, retain it, and apply that knowledge in order to adapt to the required expectations. In order for a student to enhance their learning they must first understand how they learn, and how to use their strengths to mitigate their weaknesses. This is why I do what I do.


In order to adapt, we must first understand the foundations. A student and their family must first understand their cognitive profile in order to adapt their approach, and flourish. A cognitive profile is a tool to aid in a student’s success not only to better their learning but, to highlight to educators that they have potential, and can succeed within their program.             


知识就是力量。同样,智力是吸收信息、保留信息、运用知识以适应所需期望的能力。为了提高学生的学习能力,他们必须首先了解自己是如何学习的,以及如何利用自己的优势来减轻自己的弱点。这就是我现在努力在做的事情。


为了实现因人而宜的调整方案,我们必须首先了解基础情况。比如,一个学生和他的家庭必须首先了解他们的认知状况,以便找到适应他们自己的方法,从而循序渐进。认知档案是帮助学生取得成功的工具,不仅有助于提高他们的学习水平,而且有助于向教育者强调他们有潜力,并且可以在他们的课程中取得成功。


I will be coming to you with a series of conversations on different topics focusing on intelligence, intelligence testing, and education. We will begin with the foundations of cognitive assessments, breaking down each facet, and how it applies to real life academia, and occupational success.


我将带着这一系列关于智力、智力测试和教育的不同主题的对话来找你。我们将从认知评估的基础开始,分解每个方面,以及它如何应用于现实生活中的学术和职业成功。


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